LISER together with many partners in Luxembourg co-organizes the following lecture.
Until recently, surnames for men in most societies were inherited from their fathers. In this talk I show how we can use this fact, and the information content in surnames, to reveal surprising results about the nature and mechanisms of social mobility. In particular surnames reveal that social mobility rates are much lower than conventionally estimated, and hence inequalities greater. Surnames also can offer surprising insights into the sources of regional inequalities in economic outcomes. They suggest, for example, that regional disparities in modern England are entirely the product of selective migration of economic talent within England over the past 200 years.
People who are interested in participating in the First Vienna Workshop on Economic Forecasting 2018 are invited to register in the Conference Management System Conftool:
Seminar: “Why do wages grow faster in urban areas? An empirical investigation of the role of spatial sorting”
The existence of an urban wage growth premium is a well-established empirical fact. This article challenges the conventional view that faster wage growth for urban workers is mainly caused by human capital spillovers. Instead, we find that the positive association between city size and wage growth is to a great extent driven by sorting of workers and firms, with inherently higher wage growth, into bigger cities. Having controlled for spatial sorting, we conclude that only young workers experience significant urban wage growth benefits. Wage level benefits of urban areas are important to all types of workers, especially the highly educated.
The Hague, Netherlands
Inequality in economic outcomes partly reflects genetic variation: there is considerable evidence that economic outcomes are strongly positively correlated within families. However, the strength of these correlations varies across both time and space, suggesting that other forces are also at play. This leads to more complex models of family assocations in economic outcomes. The policy implications of different views of the relationship between economic inequality and genes are discussed. While doubt can be cast on the view that inequality is mostly genetic, the implications for, e.g., policies to reduce inequality are widely misunderstood.
Prof. Markus Jäntti (Stockholm University)
The conference will feature the publication of a new research report for the Department of Employment Affairs and Social Protection on Poverty Dynamics of Social Risk Groups in the EU. This paper will draw on the EU-SILC dataset for selected countries from 2004 to 2015 to investigate changes over the period in the trends and dynamics in income poverty (AROP) and material deprivation for social risk groups in several European countries representing different welfare regimes (Nordic, Liberal, Corporatist, Southern and Eastern). A panel of discussants will consider the research findings and their implications for policy. The conference will look at international research on Poverty Dynamics. It will conclude by reflecting on the research, policy implications and plenary discussions.
During the last decade, overall income inequality in the European Union (EU) has remained stable. A closer look, however, reveals opposing developments between the real incomes of the young and the elderly. While before the global financial crisis, the young and the elderly faced similar risk of relative poverty, more recently, the risk of poverty increased significantly for the young and declined sharply for the elderly. What can explain this trend and which measures can policymakers adopt to ensure that today’s young do not fall further behind the rest of the population? What new policies, if any, are necessary?
IMF will present the recent research paper “Inequality and Poverty Across Generations in Europe” and discuss possible policy solutions that could foster integration of the young into the labor market and provide better protection through re-design of social protection and taxation systems.
ESRI Seminar: “The end of free higher education in England: Implications for quality, enrolments, and equity”
Despite increasing financial pressures on higher education systems throughout the world, many governments remain resolutely opposed to the introduction of tuition fees, and some countries and states where tuition fees have been long established are now reconsidering free higher education. Gill Wyness will present a paper she co-authored with Richard Murphy and Judith-Scott-Clayton, which examines the consequences of charging tuition fees on university quality, enrolments, and equity. To do so, they study the English higher education system which has, in just two decades, moved from a free college system to one in which tuition fees are among the highest in the world. Their findings suggest that England’s shift has resulted in increased funding per head, rising enrolments, and a narrowing of the participation gap between advantaged and disadvantaged students. In contrast to other systems with high tuition fees, the English system is distinct in that its income-contingent loan system keeps university free at the point of entry, and provides students with comparatively generous assistance for living expenses. They conclude that tuition fees, at least in the English case supported their goals of increasing quality, quantity, and equity in higher education.
Dr Gill Wyness is a lecturer in Economics at the University College London Institute of Education where her main interest is in quantitative research on higher education. Gill is currently running an ESRC-funded project examining the impact of university bursaries on drop-out and degree performance, using data collected from 25 UK universities.